# How to perform Magic Square Operation in a Matrix using Python3

In this Python tutorial, we are going to learn how to perform a magic square operation in a matrix in Python. Here we will show you an easy example so that you can understand this tutorial easily.

## MAGIC SQUARE OPERATION IN PYTHON

A Magic Square is:

- The square is itself having smaller squares (same as a matrix) each containing a number.
- The numbers in each vertical, horizontal, and diagonal row add up to the same value.
- The dimension of the square matrix is an (odd integer x odd integer) e.g., 3×3, 5×5, 7×7.

An example of this is given below in the image, where the sumĀ is 15 for every column or row.

To know about this interesting puzzle, Magic Square on Wikipedia

Now, let’s take a look at the code.

### PROGRAM: Python program for magic square operation

#Function def generateSquare(n): # 2-D array with all # slots set to 0 magicSquare = [[0 for x in range(n)] for y in range(n)] # initialize position of 1 i = n / 2 j = n - 1 # Fill the square by placing values num = 1 while num <= (n * n): if i == -1 and j == n: # 3rd condition j = n - 2 i = 0 else: # next number goes out of # right side of square if j == n: j = 0 # next number goes # out of upper side if i < 0: i = n - 1 if magicSquare[int(i)][int(j)]: # 2nd condition j = j - 2 i = i + 1 continue else: magicSquare[int(i)][int(j)] = num num = num + 1 j = j + 1 i = i - 1 # 1st condition # Printing the square print ("Magic Square for n =", n) print ("Sum of each row or column",n * (n * n + 1) / 2, "\n") for i in range(0, n): for j in range(0, n): print('%2d ' % (magicSquare[i][j]),end = '') # To display output # in matrix form if j == n - 1: print() # Driver Code # Works only when n is odd n=int(input("Number of rows of the Magic Square:")) generateSquare(n)

OUTPUT 1:

Number of rows of the Magic Square:7 Magic Square for n = 7 Sum of each row or column 175.0 20 12 4 45 37 29 28 11 3 44 36 35 27 19 2 43 42 34 26 18 10 49 41 33 25 17 9 1 40 32 24 16 8 7 48 31 23 15 14 6 47 39 22 21 13 5 46 38 30

OUTPUT 2:

Number of rows of the Magic Square:5 Magic Square for n = 5 Sum of each row or column 65.0 9 3 22 16 15 2 21 20 14 8 25 19 13 7 1 18 12 6 5 24 11 10 4 23 17

Also Read:

- Clockwise & CounterClockwise Rotation of Matrix using Numpy in Python3
- How to take only a single character as an input in Python

Hey, nice idea, I have shared on my Twitter.

It looks like the code will produce the same numbers

every time though, which makes it a bit limited,

I was thinking of doing a GUI on the code and

making a puzzle game from it, but I’m not

experienced enough yet to modify it to make

up different solutions each time.

Nice job though.