An Overview of C++ Programming Language
Let’s take a quick view of the C++ programming language. This is an overview of C++.
C++ is an extension of C Programming Language, which was created by Dennis Ritchie for the purpose of writing programs for operating systems and compilers. Since it originated from C, along with some high-level features it also has some low-level properties of C. That is why C++ is considered a middle-level language. While C is a procedural language, C++ also supports Object-Oriented programming. It was created by Danish Computer Scientist Bjarne Stroustrup.
Let’s first understand the object-oriented properties of C++.
C++: Object-Oriented Programming
Here are some object-oriented features of C++:
Encapsulation: In simple words, encapsulation means putting the code and data together. It provides a protective mechanism like a shield that prevents any access to data inside the shield by the code outside of the shield.
Abstraction: Abstraction means hiding the implementation details of something and showing only what may be of use for the user.
Inheritance: Inheritance is the property of an object of a class by which it inherits or acquires the properties of another class. In such cases, the class whose properties are inherited is called parent class and the class that inherits the properties of that class is called subclass.
Polymorphism: The name itself is the ability of an object. This ability helps an object to take multiple forms. This is mostly is used in C++ to call different functions with the same name depending on the type of object that invokes the function.
Standard Template Library of C++
C++ also has a standard template library. It provides us with many in-built programming data structures such as list, stack, array and more. STL is a library of container classes, iterators, functions, and iterators. There are many functions in STL which are often used by the programmer. Thus STL makes our job easier while writing a program.
Other Features of C++
Some other uses and advantages of using C++ have been listed here.
- C++ is a statically typed language which means type checking is performed while compiling the program.
- C++ is case sensitive. That means uppercases and lowercases alphabets are considered different from each other.
- C++ is a portable language. That means the program written on a system can be executed on any type of machine without little to no change.
- C++ is object-oriented which means object creation and manipulation of these objects can be done effectively.
- C++ is a compiled language which means it needs to be compiled before execution.
- Standard Template Library (STL) is the biggest plus point of C++ as it provides many functions and in-built data structures.
- C++ supports pointers that are supported by very few programming languages.
Application of C++
Now let’s see the use and application of C++.
- All Operating Systems like Windows, macOS, Linux are programmed in C/C++.
- The Rendering engines of many web browsers are written in C++.
- Since C++ provides a great speed many graphics applications use C++.
- C++ is used as a backend programming language in many banking applications because it helps in reducing latency.
- Postgres and MySQL are the most widely used databases all around the world. These databases are mostly written in C/C++.
- C++ is majorly used in embedded systems and distributed systems as it is close to the system hardware.
- Many compilers use C or C++ as their backend programming language.